Cognitive bias is sometimes also called “implicit bias” or “unconscious bias.”
All of these are fancy ways of saying "making predictable kinds of mistakes when you think about something” – such as, for example, automatically assuming that a woman you encounter in the hospital is a nurse (rather than a doctor).
The term comes from the related fields of cognitive science, psychology, and behavioral economics, all of which study how our brains work. Researchers in all these fields ask questions like "How do we perceive information about the world?" "How do we remember it?" and "How do we make decisions?"
Cognitive bias is one of the main reasons why gender inequality remains pervasive. That’s why we make it part of our mission to help courts, employers, schools, and the general public better understand how cognitive bias works and what can be done about it.